History Optional | Syllabus | Paper 1

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SYLLABUS (DETAILED WITH EVERY TOPICS)

SECTION A -ANCIENT INDIA

1. SOURCES:

  • Archaeological sources:
  • Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
  • Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
  • Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. PRE-HISTORY AND PROTO-HISTORY:

  • Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (Palaeolithic and Mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION:

  • Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. MEGALITHIC CULTURES:

  • Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements,Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. ARYANS AND VEDIC PERIOD:

  • Expansions of Aryans in India.

  • Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economic life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. PERIOD OF MAHAJANAPADAS:

  • Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes;Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.

  • Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. MAURYAN EMPIRE:

  • Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma;Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

  • Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. POST – MAURYAN PERIOD (INDO-GREEKS, SAKAS, KUSHANAS, WESTERN KSHATRAPAS):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana,social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. EARLY STATE AND SOCIETY IN EASTERN INDIA, DECCAN AND SOUTH INDIA:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage,trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. GUPTAS, VAKATAKAS AND VARDHANAS:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres,Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda,Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. REGIONAL STATES DURING GUPTA ERA:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration;local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas,education and literature, economy and society.

12. THEMES IN EARLY INDIAN CULTURAL HISTORY:

  • Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

SECTION B MEDIEVAL INDIA

13. EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA, 750-1200:

  • Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society

  • Indian Feudalism”

  • Agrarian economy and urban settlements

  • Trade and commerce

  • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order

  • Condition of women

  • Indian science and technology

14. CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN INDIA, 750-1200:

  • Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimamsa

  • Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India,

  • Sufism- Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India

  • Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY:

  • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success

  • Economic, social and cultural consequences

  • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans

  • Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16. THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY:

  • The Khalji Revolution”

  • Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territtorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures

  • Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq

  • Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

17. SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ECONOMY IN THE THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH CENTURIES:

  • Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
  • Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
  • Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

18. THE FIFTEENTH AND EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY – POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND ECONOMY:

  • Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
  • The Vijayanagra Empire
  • Lodis
  • Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
  • The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
  • Portuguese Colonial enterprise
  • Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19. THE FIFTEENTH AND EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY – SOCIETY AND CULTURE:

  • Regional cultural specificities
  • Literary traditions
  • Provincial architecture
  • Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. AKBAR:

  • Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
  • Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
  • Rajput policy
  • Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
  • Court patronage of art and technology

21. MUGHAL EMPIRE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY:

  • Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • The Empire and the Zamindars
  • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • Nature of the Mughal State
  • Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
  • The Ahom Kingdom
  • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES:

  • Population, agricultural production, craft production
  • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution
  • Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
  • Condition of peasants, condition of women
  • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. CULTURE IN THE MUGHAL EMPIRE:

  • Persian histories and other literature
  • Hindi and other religious literature
  • Mughal architecture
  • Mughal painting
  • Provincial architecture and painting – Classical music
  • Science and technology

24. THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY:

  • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
  • The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
  • Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
  • The Maratha fiscal and financial system
  • Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
  • State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

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19/08/2022
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