It is the name given to the benches of the Supreme Court of India which consist of at least five judges of the court who sit to decide any case:
Involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation” of the Constitution of India
For the purpose of hearing any reference” made by the President of India under Article 143.
This provision has been mandated by Article 145 (3) of the Constitution of India.
The Chief Justice of India has the power to constitute a Constitution Bench and refer cases to it.