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World Population Reaches 8 Billion: United Nation

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  • Recently, the United Nations Population Fund, stated that the world’s population has reached 8 billion.

More about the news

  • Reasons for the growth:
    • This unprecedented growth is due to the gradual increase in human lifespan owing to improvements in public health, nutrition, personal hygiene and medicine. 
    • It is also the result of high and persistent levels of fertility in some countries, the United Nations said.
  • Reaching 9 billion:
    • The UN said that it took the global population 12 years to grow from 7 billion to 8 billion. 
    • It will take approximately 15 years — until 2037 — for it to reach 9 billion. 
      • It is a sign that the overall growth rate of the global population is slowing.
  • Projections of the peak:
    • The UNFPA projects world population to peak at 10.4 billion in the 2080s and stay there until the end of the century.
  • Trends of growth:
    • Slowing growth:
      • According to the UN, falling mortality rate first led to a “spectacular population growth, but as fewer children were born generation to generation, growth started to slow.
    • Impact of Per Capita income: 
      • Countries with the highest fertility levels tend to be those with the lowest income per capita as per UN.
    • International migration:
      • International migration is now the driver of growth in many countries, with 281 million people living outside their country of birth in 2020.
      • All South Asian nations — India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka — have seen high levels of emigration in recent years.
  • India’s “youth bulge”:
    • UNFPA has noted that India has its largest ever adolescent and youth population. 
    • According to UNFPA projections, India will continue to have one of the youngest populations in the world till 2030 and is currently experiencing a demographic window of opportunity, a “youth bulge” that will last till 2025.
    • It noted that India’s fertility rate has hit 2.1 births per woman — replacement-level fertility — and is falling.
  • India surpassing China:
    • As of 2022, more than half the world’s population lives in Asia, China and India being the two most populous countries with more than 1.4 billion people each.
    • According to the United Nations Population Fund, while India’s population growth is stablising, it is “still growing at 0.7% per year” and is set to surpass China in 2023 as the world’s most populous country.
    • China’s population is no longer growing and “may start declining as early as 2023”, the UN stated. 
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